Anhedonia and Ketamine

Peter Forster Bipolar Treatment, Psychobiology, Treatments of Depression

Anhedonia, meaning the loss of the normal experience of pleasure in life, can be one of the most troubling symptoms of depression. And also one for which we have relatively few treatments. We know that a small group of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmentum (limbic system) which project to the prefrontal cortex, among other locations in the brain, are …

Bipolar Depression Neurobiology – 2014 ISBD Update

Peter Forster Bipolar Treatment, Psychobiology

Bipolar depression neurobiology is an area that¬†urgently¬†needs more research. The treatment of a depression that follows an energized (hypomanic or manic) state remains one of the most difficult areas in psychiatry. Mark Frye, Chair of the Department of Psychiatry at the Mayo Clinic, gave a presentation on this topic at the 2014 International Society of Biological Society conference that was …

TMS Mechanism of Action – Changes in Brain Connectivity?

Peter Forster Basic Science, Treatments of Depression

TMS’s mechanism of action has been unclear. Transcranial magnetic stimulation affects activity locally in the region of the brain that is stimulated, but does that explain how it works? Since it affects local activity in every patient, why does it not work for everyone? A new article in Biological Psychiatry suggests that it may be changes in brain connectivity that …